Monday, 20 November 2006

SMZ na Vilabu vya Pombe...

Pengine ni Zanzibar pekee katika Afrika Mashariki ambako unaweza kukuta Mahakama ya Vileo. Mahakama hii hufanya kazi chini ya Waziri wa Tawala za Mikoa, ikiwahusisha Wafanyakazi toka katika Mahakama ya wilaya, Baraza la Manispaa na Waombaji wa leseni ya kuuza vileo katika kisiwa cha Zanzibar.

Mahakama hii ipo siku nyingi zaidi ya uhai wa SMZ yenyewe, aidha imekuwa ikizidi kupata umaarufu siku za karibuni, ambako kumekuwepo na pingamizi za wazi kuhusu uhanzishwaji wa vilabu vya pombe na suala zima la unywaji pombe visiwani humo.

Pingamizi kubwa toka kwa wananchi ni kwamba vibalu vingi vimekuwa vikianzishwa karibu na nyumba za ibada na sehemu za maakazi ya watu. Hivyo kuwepo na kero kwa wananchi kutokana na kelele za wanywaji au pilikapilika za kwenye vilabu hivyo.

Hata hivyo sio wananchi wengi ambao wanajua shughuli za Mahakama hii, hivyo wengi wao huishia kutupa lawama zao kwa Baraza la Manispaa na Ofisi ya Mkuu wa Mkoa. Kwa ufupi Mahakama hii hukutana mara moja kwa mwaka kupitisha maombi yote ya uanzishaji wa biashara ya ulevi, kuongeza muda kwa lesini za biashara ya ulevi, kufuta lesini zilizoshindwa kufuata utaratibu n.k Mahakama hii haiusiki na utoaji wa vibali vya ujenzi wa nyumba za ulevi.

Hivi karibuni Mh. Waziri wa Tawala za Mikoa Visiwani humo aliitaka mahakama hiyo kutotoa leseni kwa vilabu vya ulevi vilivyopo karibu na Maakazi ya watu na nyumba za ibada, na ni baada ya kuwepo kwa malalamiko mengi toka kwa wananchi.

Pengine ni wakati ambao tunapaswa kujiuliza kuwa ni sehemu zipi za maakazi ya watu, ni sehemu zipi za biashara ni sehemu zipi za elimu ni sehemu zipi za viwanda na ni sehemu zipi za kilimo ndani ya kisiwa hicho. Kwa haraka haraka sio rahisi kujua hilo na hasa ikizingatiwa hali halisi ya mpango wa mji wa kisiwa hicho. Hata ukiangalia master plan ya Mwaka 1982 chini ya Sheria ya Ardhi ya mwaka 1985, haikuweza kuweka bayana sehemu maalumu kwa ujenzi na uendeshaji wa biashara ya ulevi. Masterplan hiyo ilitenga maaeneo ya Maakazi, Viwanda na Elimu tu. Hivyo basi leo hii kusema kudai kuwa Vilabu visiwe katika maaneo ya wakaazi sio sahihi.

Zaidi wenye vilabu na wanywaji wa ulevi katika kisiwa hicho, ni wastaraabu sana na ni watu ambao wanajua kuheshimu uhumimu wa kuheshimu Majirani zao, iwe ni sehemu ya Ibada au Maakazi ya watu.
Kwa mfano, kila inapokaribia adhana, basi redio au muziki ndani ya kilabu huzimwa hadi adhana inapokwisha. Kwa maelewano mazuri kati ya wenye baa na baadhi ya misikiti iliyokaribu na baa hizo huweza kusaidiana huduma ya maji, na hasa kwa waumini kwenda kutawadha katika baa pasipo usumbufu wowote. Hivyo ni vema kuendelea kuheshimu uungwana wa walevi wa visiwa hivyo ambao ulevi wao ni wa kistaarabu kuliko walevi wa nchi nyiongi dinuani

Sunday, 19 November 2006

eka Tatu

Kuna kauli moja iliwahi kutolewa na rais wa awamu ya nne katika SMZ kuwa Zanzibar ni "Njema na kila atakae kuja basi anakaribishwa" Kutokana na kauli hiyo Zanzibar ilishuhudia mabadiliko ya nguvu katika sekta zote kuanzia ya kibiashara,kijamii na kadhalika. Mamia ya watu walianza kufanya biashara wageni wakiongezeka na kuufanya mji wa zanzibar kuwa mdogo kutokana na msongamano wa watu.

Kuingia kwa awamu ya tano kulishuhudiwa na mabadiliko makubwa zaidi,mabadiliko haya zaidi yalikuwa katika kuendeleza ardhi ya zanzibar. Hapa inabidi tukumbuke kuwa ardhi yote ya Visiwa vya Zanzibar ni mali ya serikali. Hivyo ili uweze kuendeleza ardhi hiyo ni shurti uwe na hati ya kumiliki ardhi hiyo toka serikalini. Katika awamu ya tano kulikuwa na wimbi kubwa la ujenzi wa nyumba za kuishi na mahoteli, kutokana na kuwa serikali ndio mmiliki wa ardhi kwa kiasi kikubwa ilishindwa kukidhi maombi mengi ya viwanja. Hili likawa ni tatizo kubwa na tena kubwa sana. Hadi mwaka huo tayali mji wa zanzibar ulikuwa unafuata mapendekezo ya mastertplan ya wachina ya mwaka 1982 iliyotiliwa nguvu na sheria ya upimaji miji na ardhi ya mwaka 1985. Master plan hiyo iliongeza ukubwa wa mji wa zanzibar na ilikuwa imeshatenga maeneo ambayo serikali ilitakiwa kuyaendeleza aidha kwa kujenga nyumba au kugawa ardhi hiyo kwa wananchi wanaotaka kujenga nyumba. Hilo halikufanyika na kama lilifanyika basi ni kwa kiwango kidogo sana. Maeneo hayo yaliyopimwa na kuonyeshwa kwenye master plan ni pamoja na eka tatu ambazo zilitolewa na serikali ya awamu ya kwanza na ya pili kwa lengo la kuwapatia wananchi wa visiwa hivyo sehemu za kulima. Katika awamu hizo wananchi wengi walikuwa wanaishi katika maeno ya umbali wa maili tano kuzunguka mji. Eka tatu karinu zote zilikuwa nje ya mji na ziliguswa na master plan.
Kutokana na mabadiliko ya kiuchumi na mahitaji makubwa ya ardhi kwa ajili ya ujenzi, eka tatu taratibu zilianza kujengwa. Ilikuwa ni kazi ya ziada kujenga katika eka hizo ukizingatia kuwa ardhi ni mali ya serikali. Hata kupitia Mambo msige ambao wao pia wanatoa hati ya kumiliki mali, wananchi waliona huko ndiko kwepesi kwa kupata hati ya kumiliki ardhi.Hivyo wananchi walianza kujenga misingi ya nyumba katika heka hizo na baadae kuziuza na serikali kupitia idara yake ya mambo msige kuidhinisha na kuthibitisha uuzaji na uendelezaji wa ardhi hiyo ambayo awali ilikusudiwa kuwa ni ya kilimo. Vita kati ya idara za serikali ukaanza taratibu kati ya idara ya Ardhi na Idara ya Mambo msige, huku serikali kuu ikikaa kimya.

Leo katika kusoma gazeti nimekutana na kauli ya Waziri wa Waziri wa Maji, Ujenzi na Ardhi Bw. Mansour Yussuf Himid akisema kuwa smz itabomoa nyumba zote zilizojengwa kwenye eka tatu. Kauli hii kwa kweli imenitisha mno. Na ni kauli nzito sana kwa waelfu ya wakaazi wa Visiwa hivyo. Kwani kwa namna moja ama nyingine watakaoadhirika na bomoabomoa hiyo ni wengi, na ni kuanzia kwenye mahoteli yote ya kitalii yaliyojengwa baada ya mwaka 1985, viwanda na maelfu ya nyumba za kuishi.

quote:
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’’Tutabomoa nyumba zilizojengwa kwenye ardhi za ekari tatu zilizotolewa kwa wananchi baada ya Mapinduzi,’’ alisisitiza Waziri.

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From Informal Settlements to formal Settlements

Zanzibar is located in the Indian Ocean 37km off the east coast of Africa. Politically it belongs to the United Repluc of Tanzania. The archipelago of Zanzibar consists of two major islands which are called Unguja and Pemba. Unguja, which is referred of Zanzibar, is the larger island with 1658sq. km, with estimated population of 206,000. Zanzibar Town consists of two main parts, Stone Town and Ng’ambo (is Swahili name means the other side). The Ng’ambo area is the one with faces rapid growth of informal settlement, originally ¾ this part of town is inhabited by African people, while Stone Town is inhabited by mix of Indians, Arabs and Africans.

The current urban development is determined by the growth of informal settlements. The government is not able to cope with the vast stream of migrants and the fast growth of the informal settlements, which leads to a shortage of basic infrastructure, such as water supply, sewerage systems, solid waste management or storm water management. This situation creates problems for the rural-urban migrants concerning housing conditions, health conditions and the quality of life in general.

The growth of informal settlements in the Zanzibar Town is the result of high demand housing, jobs land for building purpose and services, while the government falls to provide these demands. From this growth of informal settlement, some area have develop a local governance that will enable to integrate the rapid use of land and environmental.

The other factor which contributes a lot in merge of informal settlement is unclear municipal boundary. In Ng’ambo area there are two part of area; planned area according to 1980 Master Plan and unplanned area. In the Master Plan which was designed by government of China and implemented by Department of Survey and Urban Planning fail to show the boundary of Zanzibar Municipal. Even if the Act which establish The Zanzibar Municipal Council “Act 1995” fail to state exactly the boundary of Municipality.

There other contradiction of government institutions which on way or other dealing with planning and implementing the master plan. Each Department has legal power on supervising the use of land. Namely; Department of Survey and Urban Planning, Zanzibar Municipal Council, Department of Land and Environments and Stone Town Conversation and Development Authority.

Planning system especially the provisional of building land at the urban fringe of Zanzibar town is inefficient and too slow to meet the demand of the settlers. To get a land title, the settler has to apply for it at the government, because according to the law building plot can only be provided by the government institutions. The process of provisional of land is start by surveying the agricultural used area, followed by laying building plots which are legalized as layout plan for building before handed to the applicant. Because there are many settlers on the application and on other hand the government faces lack of manpower, technical equipments and finance, this formal way of application of land cannot deal with the rapid growth of settler from rural area who wanted to settle in the urban area.

The failure of formal application process forces many settlers to get plot from informal land market. The informal land management does follow any accepted planning principle, instead the settlement layout process of action and negotiation between different actors. It also doesn’t consider the future problem which may arise due to the layout. During the process there are different actors involved. First the vendors, who are the TAP-grantees (The government confiscated all former plantations and subdivided them into Three Acre Plots of 12.000 sq m size. They were allocated to peasant families with a Right of Occupancy strongly restricted for agricultural use around Zanzibar Town.)

sell their land that they have the Right of Occupancy for farming use for, directly to purchasers as land for housing. During the process of selling the land, the grantee becomes the allocator. In some cases an allocator turns to a middleman, who brings vendors and purchasers together. The purchasers can be split into two groups. Most of the people buy land to construct a house for own usage while some are speculator.

The last institution involved into the process is the Sheha (He or She appointed by Regional Commissioner and responsible for all government activities own its area) or the Councilor. (Member of local government selected through voting and leader of a Ward. One ward may consist of two Shehia.) Although the subdivision of land for housing is illegal, he confirms the transaction as a witness and ensures the land tenure. Allocators are usually not trained in planning issues. They are interested in selling the highest possible amount of land as fast as possible. The faster they sell, the less is the danger of being compensated by the government and thereby losing their land for a low compensation. Therefore they sell plots according to the wishes of the customers concerning size, shape and location. It is obvious that this procedure creates a highly random settlement pattern that causes inefficient land use, blocking of access and prevents the implementation of technical infrastructure. The buyers do not feel pressure when undertaking the illegal process, because the government would have to compensate them for residential land and is not able to do that in terms of financial means. Settlers’ seldomly buy more land than they need for their building purposes and do not preserve land for infrastructure. Indeed they often only realise that they have not left enough space for access or other important needs when the house is finished and they start to live there. And even if the allocator fixes a quite structured layout, the purchasers can turn it into a highly unstructured and dysfunctional settlement.

From the discussion above we see simply the how the informal settlements formed in Zanzibar town. Every settler was aware of the problems facing them. There was no place for infrastructures and the housing was built in the random way and cause may difficulties to the settlers themselves. And at this time small groups of settlers was formed through in the neighbourhood and initiate community based organization (CBO) and NGOs with the aim of solving particular problem facing them. Examples, construction of drainage system, collection of solid waste, open spaces, flooding and control of future construction of houses. The term governance at this point means that; the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Beside of involving the settles, these organizations were also having members from the local government. The method which was used to tackle the problem is the bottom – up approach. This method enables the community to solve the really problem which is facing rather than waiting the government. The first and most important step towards a successful working CBO is the awareness inside the settlement since the whole concept bases on the willingness of the residents to contribute. To ensure a democratic bottom-up development with the involvement of all residents, then the good approach to the residents is Word of mouth as it can plays a major role as it is already the common way to spread information. In order to create a better understanding in the younger generation it is important to involve the nursery schools, the primary school into the awareness.

To ensure a continuous participation of all interested residents, the members have to feel the importance of their work. This includes the resident’s personal role inside the CBO and the aim of the whole CBO. Therefore the structure and the decision making process of the CBO have to be transparent to everybody. The general assemblies, where the process of the work is presented and important matters and strategies are discussed, are held regularly. Additionally information on the progress and new occurrences are presented in a showcase or on posters. To attract more people to participate in the general assembly. Determinant for the success of the implementation concept is the willingness of the residents to contribute. The awareness campaigns and the general assembly need motivated and convincing individuals who understand the pay-offs and advantages of CBO work.

Through this approach some part of informal settlement in Zanzibar Town such as Maili nne, Mtondooni and Jang’ombe Urusi have successes in solving their problems cause by informal settlements. In Jang’ombe Urusi the community was faces a flooding problems every year. But now they have built a drainage system which collects all rainwater. The maintenances and supervision of the drainage is under the community through their CBO. The residents of Mtondooni now they are enjoying the integration of CBO and local government after the completion of 5km pipeline for tap water which have reduce the burden of carrying water for long distance.

SMZ iamke sasa...

Kisiwa cha Zanzibar ni kidogo sana,hata hivyo kimejaliwa kuwa na mambo mengi sana kiasi cha kuwa kivutio cha aina yake!Anyway sina haya ya kueleza mengi kuhusu kisiwa hicho...

Kitu ambacho nataka kuzungumzia ni juu ya utunzaji wa mazingira na hasa sehemu ambazo wanaishi wazenj wenyewe. Makaazi ya wanavisiwa hao na hasa wale waishio maeneo ya Ng'ambo sio ya kuridhisha kabisa. Na hapana shaka yoyote kuwa Halmashauri ya mji wa Zanzibar inashindwa kuuweka eneo hilo katika hali ya usafi inayostahili.

Cha kusikitisha zaidi, wananchi wa maeneo hayo wanapotaka kujiondolea kero zao kwa upande mmoja wanakutana na pingamizi na Halmashauri hiyo, na kufanya juhudi zao kutozaa matunda yoyote.

Hapa nina mfano wa mradi ambao ulifunguliwa ili kusafisha na kutunza mazingira ya wadi ya Mkele. Mradi huo kwa sasa umekufa na tatizo la uchafu wa mazingira ukiendelea. Kinachosikitisha zaidi ni sababu za msingi ambazo zimepelekea kufa kwa mradi huo ambao ulitazamiwa kuwa ni mradi dila katika kuondoa kero za mazingira machafu ambao unasimamiwa na wananchi wenyewe.

Moja ya sababu kubwa ya kufa kwa mradi huo ni kwa manispaa ya zanzibar kutoachia maeneo ambayo yangeweza kuingiza kipato ili mradi huo uweze kujiendesha. Labda hapa nieleze kwa ufupi aina ya mradi huo. Huu ulikuwa ni mradi wa ukusanyaji na utupaji wa taka, ambapo wananchi waliokuwa akipata huduma hii ilipaswa kuchangia gharama za ukusanyaji na utupaji wa taka hizo. Maeneo yote ya wadi yaliorodheshwa katika mradi huu.. nikiwa na maana ya sehemu za kuishi na zile za biashara.

Hata hivyo Manispaa ilikata kutua maeneo ya biashara yaliyopo kwenye eneo la mradi huu ingawa mradi ulikuwa ukisafisha maeneo hayo vile vile. Kukosekana kwa mapato toka katika maeneo ya wanafanya biashara, ambao kwa kiasi kikubwa ndio wazalishaji wakubwa wa taka, kulizoretesha kabisa mapato ya mradi huo. Ikumbukwe kuwa wafanyabiashara hao nao walitiwa hesabuni kama ndio sehemu kubwa ya kupatikana kwa mapato ya mradi huo kabla ya kuanza. Hata hivyo Manispaa ilikataa kabisa kuachia maeneo ya wafanyabiashara kuhudumiwa na mradi huo.

Sababu nyingine ni migongano ya viongozi juu ya kuendesha mradi huo. Viongozi wa kisiasa katika eneo hilo walitumia mradi kujionyesha kwa viongozi wenzao na wananchi kwa ujumla, hii ilijenga vita vya ndani kwa ambavyo lengo lilikuwa ni kuzolotesha mradi mzima...na lengo hilo limefanikiwa.

Wakati wote huu wa mvutano juu ya uendeshaji wa mradi huu serikali kuu SMZ ilika kimya tu, pamoja na kuwa wao pia walichangia kiasi fulani kuanzishwa kwa mradi huo. Ukaaji kimya wa SMZ pengine ulitokana na kutotambua kero za wananchi juu ya taka, au tu ilitaka kuridhisha upande mmoja(manispaa) na kuacha mradi ukifa kwa matatizo ambayo yalikuwa yanawezekana kutatuliwa pasipo bughuza zozote.

Ili hali ya mazingira iwe nzuri kisiwani huko ni vema SMZ sasa wakaamka na kuheshimu maamuzi ya wananchi. Sio vema SMZ kuchangia kuanzishwa kwa miradi na kushindwa kuona miradi hiyo ikisimama yenyewe na kuendelea. Ubinafsi miongoni mwa watendaji wa SMZ, vita kati ya viongozi wa kisiasa ni mambo ambayo yanatakiwa kupigwa msasa na hasa kwenye suala zima Utunzaji wa Mazingira.

Ni jambo la aibu sana kwa kisiwa hicho kuwa kichafu kiasi cha kusababisha ugonjwa wa kipindupindu, ambao haukuwepo miaka ya huko nyuma!

SMZ siku zote inanichekesha

Hivi karibuni SMZ imefuta kiwanja cha ubalozi wa Oman kwa madai ya kuwa kipo sehemu mbaya kiusalama! eti kipo karibu sana na beach!

Mwee! hivi nani hasa huwa anaomba kiwanja?
Nijuavyo mimi ni kuwa Taasisi au mtu binafsi huomba Kiwanja kwa kutaja sehemu ambayo huona ni muafaka kwake kuwa na kiwanja. Hivyo nina amini kuwa ubalozi wa Oman uliomba kiwanjwa hicho kwa kuwa wao waliona kuwa eneo hilo ndio linafaa kwako kujenga ofisi ya ubalozi na sio sehemu nyingine yoyote ile. Na SMZ wakati ule iliridhia kutoa kiwanja hicho kwa ubalozi wa Oman, licha ya kwenda kinyume na maelekezo ya masterplan ya hifadhi na uendelezaji wa Mji Mkongwe.

Hata hivyo Ubalozi haukujengwa zaidi ya eneo hilo kuzungushiwa ukuta tu ambao kwa kiasi fulani ulikuwa ni kero tupu kwa watu ambao walikuwa wanaegesha magari katika eneo hilo... Zaidi kuzuia sehemu ya kuanzia kwa mashindano ya ngalawa.

Leo hii SMZ kama kawa imeibuka na kusema kuwa eneo hilo halifai kwa ujenzi wa ofisi ya ubalozi, kwa sababu za kiusalama?

Usalama wa aina gani ambao SMZ wanaosema?... Ikulu ipo beach, Hospitali kuu ipo beach, Mahakama Kuu ipo beach, ubalozi wa Misri upo beach.. yaani kila ofisi muhimu hapo zenj zipo beach! sasa ni kwanini tu Ubalozi huo usiwe beach?
Kama mmefuta umiliki wa uwanja huo kwa ajili ya kubadilisha matumizi ya ardhi kwa kiwanja hicho, itakuwa ni jambo la busara iwapo kiwanja hicho kitarudishiwa matumizi yake ya awali kama eneo wazi.

Kuwepo kwa ukuta katika eneo hilo kwa kiasi fulani kulizorotesha sana maendeleo ya kibiashara kwa maeneo ya karibu kama vile Starehe Club, Wings, Garage Club, n.k

Maji ya Dezo yafikia kikomo Zenj...

Baraza la Wawakilishi hatimae kwa shingo upande limepitisha mswaada wa kulipia huduma ya maji katika visiwa vya zenj. Hii ina maana kuwa ile kauli ya "maji ya Karume(maji ya bure)" inafikia kikomo. Wananchi wa visiwa hivyo wamekuwa wakitumia maji bure tokea mwaka 1964. Gharama zote za matumizi ya maji zilikuwa chini ya serikali hivyo kufanya sekta hiyo kwa kiasi fulani kudumaa na hasa baada ya Azimio la Zanzibar, ambapo Visiwa hivyo vilishuhudia ongezeko kubwa la mahitaji ya maji.

Wafadhili kadhaa kwa wakati tofauti waliishauri SMZ kubadili mfumo wake ili kuweza kupatikana kwa huduma bora ya maji bila mafanikio.

Hata hivyo kutokana na shida kubwa ya maji, na kuanzishwa kwa sustainable programme kupitia NGO na CBO Baadhi ya wananchi walianza miradi ya kujitafutia maji ya bomba kwa gharama zao wenyewe. Miradi hii imekuwa ya mafanikio sana kwao.

Nina matumaini makubwa kuwa wafadhili ambao walisusa kuanzisha mfumo mpya wa ugawaji maji katika visiwa vyenye maji safi na matamu duniani nzima(nunua Drop kama huamini), watarudi na kuendeleza shughuli zao pale walipoachia.

Kwa upande mwingine wananchi wa Zenj wawe tayali kukubali kulipia maji na kutumia maji kwa uangalifu na zaidi kutunza huduma hiyo.
Hii ni kwa faida yetu wenyewe, vilevile kutawezesha huduma hiyo kuwa endelevu. Tukumbuke kuwa Hudumu ya maji ni Kwa faida yetu sisi wananchi na ni wakati wetu kusimamia hudumu hiyo ili iweze kuwa endelevu.

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